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Kamal Gerasimov
Kamal Gerasimov


If your mark includes a design element, you must search using a design code. The USPTO assigns all marks containing design figurative elements a 6-digit numerical code(s) for searching purposes. A design code search is also conducted using TESS.


For assistance in searching with a design code, access the Design Search Code Manual . This manual indexes the categories, divisions, and sections that make up these codes. For example, a five-pointed star would be coded in category 01 (celestial bodies, natural phenomena and geographical maps), division 01 (stars, comets) and section 03 (stars with five points), resulting in a complete design code of 01.01.03.

The Patent Public Search tool is a new web-based patent search application that will replace internal legacy search tools PubEast and PubWest and external legacy search tools PatFT and AppFT. Patent Public Search has two user selectable modern interfaces that provide enhanced access to prior art. The new, powerful, and flexible capabilities of the application will improve the overall patent searching process.

To begin searching, click inside the search box at the top-right of the center pane (or type Ctrl/Cmd-F) and start typing your search terms. As you type, only those items in the center column that match the search terms will remain.

PubMed uses a phrase index to provide phrase searching. To browse the phrase index, use the Show Index feature included in the Advanced Search builder: select a search field, enter the beginning of a phrase, and then click Show Index.

The format to search for this field is: last name followed by a space and up to the first two initials followed by a space and a suffix abbreviation, if applicable, all without periods or a comma after the last name (e.g., fauci as or o'brien jc jr). Initials and suffixes may be omitted when searching.

The NLM Medical Subject Headings controlled vocabulary of biomedical terms that is used to describe the subject of each journal article in MEDLINE. MeSH is updated annually to reflect changes in medicine and medical terminology. MeSH terms are arranged hierarchically by subject categories with more specific terms arranged beneath broader terms. PubMed allows you to view this hierarchy and select terms for searching in the MeSH Database.

Note that if you wish to use the search abilities of DataTables this must remain true - to remove the default search input box whilst retaining searching abilities (for example you might use the search() method), use the dom option.

With this in mind, knowing a few search strategies and hints can make the search more profitable. This guide provides information on the different ways of locating material online, including using search engines, searching the invisible Web, and using Web directories.

Web of Science is an international, multidisciplinary database that also provides access to citation databases including Science Citation Index (SCI). Cited reference searching allows you to track prior research, see who is citing your work, and follow new developments.

When searching, the keywords and synonyms you choose to express the main concepts are combined using search logic (AND, OR, NOT) and syntax tools (truncation, quotation marks, etc.) to help you find the most relevant results. In-depth explanations of search logic and syntax tools are provided below.

The PREPARE (Planning Research and Experimental Procedures on Animals: Recommendations for Excellence) guidelines provide advice on topics (include literature searching) that researchers should consider when planning studies involving animals.

Keyword and subject searching methods are two widely used ways to effectively find items on your topic. They are usually offered to the researcher among other search options by any index, database, or online library catalog. There are important advantages to both methods; knowing how to use them and how they differ from each other will help you retrieve better, more accurate results.

Keyword searching uses any words you can think of that best describe your topic. Keyword searches will be broad: title, source and contents of each item will be searched for your keyword(s). This is the reason your searches may retrieve too many, too few, or completely irrelevant items. That is why using this method is a good way to start your research process. A keyword search can be the first step on the way to finding subject headings appropriate to your topic and using them to get more relevant results.

Subject searching uses subject headings that come from a predetermined list of possible terms and reflect the content of the item. Most academic libraries use Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) for Subject Search of their online catalogs. A subject search is more specific than a keyword search: it looks in only one field of each record - the subject field. Many databases use subject headings that are unique to that particular database. This controlled vocabulary allows for consistency of terms across the database. For example, Medline database uses MeSH - medical subject headings and CINAHL database also has its own unique headings. These subject headings can be found in the database's thesaurus. In the thesaurus subjects are often listed with broader, narrower, or related subjects. Using the database's thesaurus will help you identify most effective search terms.

This is excellent for searching for plurals without having to type out both the singular and plural in your search, but will find also find any other alternative endings (some of which may not be relevant to your topic).

Performing a high quality electronic search of information resources ensures the accuracy and completeness of the evidence used in your review. However, errors have been found in search strategies of systematic reviews (even Cochrane ones!). PRESS EBC is an evidence-based checklist that has been developed to guide and inform the peer review of search strategies for database searching and can also be used to check your own search strategy.

Proximity or adjacency searching using keywords allows you to search for two words or phrases that appear within a set number of words of each other (in any order). This is less precise than a phrase search (see the box on this page) but ensures it is more likely that the words/phrases will be related than a simple AND search. Different databases require you to type in different operators/commands in order to undertake a proximity search. Check the help pages for the database platform you are searching if the commands are not listed below.

Note that whilst the N proximity searching will find terms regardless of the order in which they appear, the Within operator (W) will find only those articles where the terms appear in the order they were entered. For example, typing kidney W3 failure will retrieve articles which include the phrases 'kidney failure'/'kidney transplant failure'/'kidney graft failure' but not 'failure of the kidneys'.

It is important when searching databases which have a thesaurus and which tag articles with subject headings (Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Cinahl, etc) that your search strategy combines (with OR) both relevant subject headings and keyword/free-text searches on a particular concept. For full details see the Drawing up your search strategy tab.

When developing your search strategy you may wish to search using specific phrases rather than simply undertaking a search on individual keywords combined with OR. For example searching for "physical therapy" as a phrase in the title or abstract of articles will limit your search significantly compared to searching for 'physical OR therapy'.

Boolean terms (sometimes called Boolean operators or command terms) connect your keywords to create a logical phrase that the database can understand. This may involve telling the database to look for multiple terms or concepts at once, which will make your search more precise. Or it may involve searching for alternative terms that will bring back more results.

The primary topics in this part of the specialization are: asymptotic ("Big-oh") notation, sorting and searching, divide and conquer (master method, integer and matrix multiplication, closest pair), and randomized algorithms (QuickSort, contraction algorithm for min cuts).

If you are searching a text field and the character is on the list of special characters in text searches, precede them with two backslashes. This will let you run the query that contains a reserved character, but the character itself will be ignored in your query. For more information, see Special characters in Search syntax for text fields.

Here you can find a brief overview of Jira fields, operators, keywords, and functions used to compose JQL queries. For detailed description and examples of their usage for advance searching, check the links from the Reference column.

Citation searching is useful when you want to analyze literature in a way that keyword or subject searching does not allow, such as when you are exploring a new area of study and are either studying the current state of research in that area or are still learning the language of the topic.

Before developing your campaign strategy, you'll want to do some research to understand what your target audience is searching for. How do you find out what people are searching for, and how can you act upon this information? Read on for more. 041b061a72

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